Adamant Jinnah and Partition of India
Murtaza Ahmed Danish
Life Influence and Profession:
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born at Karachi on 25th December 1876 in a rich trading family. His father Jinnahbhai Poonja was the youngest of all three sons Jinnahbhai Poonja’s wife name was Mithibal. They gave birth to a son, the first of seven children.
Officially named Mohamedali Jinnahbhai enrolled him in school when he was six year old in Sindh Modrasatul-Islam. Jinnah was indifferent to his studies and loathed. Arithmetic, preferring to play outdoors with his friends. His father was especially keen towards his studying arithmetic as it was vital in his business. By the early 1880’s Jinnahbhai Poonja’s trade business had prospered greatly.
In 1887 Jinnah bhai’s only sister brought her nephew to Bombay for better education. Jinnah joined Gokal Das Tej Primary School in Bombay. He remained in Bombay for only six months, returned to Karachi upon his mother’s insistence and again joined the said Madrassa. But his name was struck off as he frequently cut classes in order to ride his father’s houses.
He then joined the Christian Missionary Society High School where his parents thought his restless mind could be focused.
In 1891 his father planned to send his son to London for higher education. When his mother heard about his plan of going London, she objected strongly. She already fasted the pain of separation of her child for six month. She thought separation would be permanent for her and that she would never see her son again. After many efforts she agreed but with the condition that Jinnah would marry before he went to England. England she said was a dangerous country to send an unmarried and handsome youngman like her son.Ultimately Jinnah was married at the age of 16 with Emibai, a 14 years old bride. After short period stay he went to London. In London’s Inn in June 1893 where he developed interest in politics.
While in London Jinnah came under the influence of Dadabhai, Naroji, then President of London India Society. Another nationalist leader which left a deep impact on Jinnah was Gopal Krishna Gokhale. In 1915 Jinnah said in his speech about Gokhole “He was a great political Rishi, a master of finance of India and the greatest champion of education and sanitation”. He also was influenced by Surendra Nath Banerjee and Chittaranjan Das. He said” learned my first lesson in politics at the feet of Sir Surender Nath Banerjee”. Jinnah returned to India in beginning of 1900s and chose Bombay for his residence, since he no longer had interest in Karachi after the demise of his mother and his wife in Bombay. He started his career first as a lawyer and then a politician. In 1918 Jinnah married Ruttie after falling in love with her. Ruttie was a daughter of his friend Sir Dinshow Manockfew, the son of a richest and most devotedly orthodox Parsi of the nineteenth century. At the time of marriage Jinnah was 39 years old and Ruttie was of 18 years. In initial stage they enjoyed their married life but after some time his busy work schedule did not allow him to spend enough time with his young and vibrant wife. In 1922 she packed her bags and took their only daughter Dina with her to London on 20th February 1929 Ruttie Jinnah died. It was her 29th Birthday.
Jinnah was a eminent lawyer and a man of westernised outlook. He was highly influenced by the western culture and life style. It was a reason that he was not most popular among Ulmas and famous religious leaders of that time.
He became the member of Muslim League in 1913. Due to his efforts and secular attitude a pact was signed in Lucknow in 1916. He was popularised as “The best ambessodar of Hindus Muslim Unity”. During these days he was an elegant personality of Indian National Congress. In fact Jinnah drifted away from Congress after Mahatma Gandhi’s Programme of non-Cooperation Movement. He strongly opposed the resolution of non-cooperation at the Nagpur Session of INC in 1920.
He formally left the Congress and joined Muslim League in 1921 . In 1940s Lahore Session of Muslim League Jinnah advocated Two Nation Theory.
Two Nation Theory
The Two Nation Theory’ the belief that Hindues and Muslim were two different nation who could not live in one country, gained popularity among Muslim League leadership.
In 1930 Dr. Muhamad Iqbal gave the idea of separate government in North-West Frontier Province, Baluchistan, Punjab and Sindh. In 1933 Choudhary Rehmat Ali gave the concept of separate Muslim state and also coined the term Pakistan.
In 1934 Jinnah was elected as the President of Muslim League. This was the start of new era in India’s struggle for independence. Jinnah moved Pakistan resolution in 1940. He tried to popularise two nation concept among Muslims of this country.
Ulema’s Stand. after Indian National Congress many Muslim religious organisations of subcontinent criticised the stand of Jinnah. While Muhammad Ali Jinnah won over the modern muslims.
Jamial-uluma-I- Hind, Majus-i-Ahrar and Jamat-i- Islami were politically very active during the struggle of Pakistan but all of them bitterly opposed the creation of separate homeland for the Muslims.
Ulemas believed that faith was universal and could not be contained within national boundaries and nationality was a matter of geography and muslims were obliged to be loyal to the nation of their birth along with their non-mulsim fellow citizens. Ulema accepted the doctrine of Indian nationalism.
Maulana Husain Ahmed Madam travelled throughout India and tried to convince the Muslims hijacked by league generally and Jinnah particularly. Mazhar Ali Azhar used the insulting phrase for Jinnah Kafir-I-Azam (The great un-believer) instead of Quaid-i-Azam. Ahrar leaders termed Palidistan for Pakastan.
Majlis-i-Ahrar passed a resolution and advised Muslims to accept Maulana Azad as their leader and to join the Congress Party. But unfortunately all efforts failed and modern Muslim leaders achieved their objective and defeated the traditional Indian Ulemas and no changers like Maulana Azad, Maulana Madni etc.
Gandhiji and Rajagopalachari continued their efforts to bring about Hindu-Muslim accord. On the other side Congress leaders failed to convince and cooperate with Jinnah.
After the ‘Great Calcutta Killing’ on direct action day every Indian leader was aware about the consequences of partition. It was the two principle political parties, the Congress and the Muslim League, that were really responsible for the failure. They had taken up positions that admitted no compromise.
Cabinet Mission Plan, Wavell Plan and Crips Mission also opposed the partition of country. A seeker of power in newly born nation even did not melt down after killing of lakhs of people. After independence he proudly addressed with people in Pakistan and enjoyed his victory.
On 15th June 1947, the All India Congress Committee passed a resolution accepting the 3rd June plan of partition called Mountbatten Plan. However, it expressed the hope that India would one day be reunited.
On midnight of 14th / 15th August 1947 a great nation was divided into two dominions i.e India and Pakistan. Manavar Rana Rightly said.
Bishadna uski khwaish thin a meri aarzu lekin Zra si zid ne iss aangan ka batwara kraya hai Heart of Asia was broken bruttely due to the adamant attitude of Jinnah.
Though in 1940’s Jinnah suffered from tuberculosis, only his sister and few others close to him were aware of his condition. On 11th September, 1948 just over a year after independence he died due to combination of tuberculosis and lungs cancer. When Viceroy of India Lord Mountbatten learned about his death. He said “had they known that Jinnah was about to die, they could have postpond India’s independence by a few months as he was being inflexible on Pakistan”. Before his death Jinnah personally requested Indian PM Jawahar Lal Nehru to preserve his house in Malabar Hill Bombay and that one day he could return to Mumbai.