Renewable energy – powering a safer future

Mohammad Hanief

Energy is ability or capacity to do work. The renewable energy sources are non-conventional and environmental friendly in nature. The renewable energy technology is a direct substitute of recent technology. With the help of renewable energy we can save more energy, make better environment by the replacement of fossil fuels. In the last two to three decades the environmental related problems are more created therefore the application of renewable energy technology is highly applicable for better environmental conditions.
With the increasing of population, the energy source demands are also increases. The amount of energy requirement is different between the countries around the world. The developed country need more energy compare to developing country. The present people are most concern about renewable energy sources because it is pollution free, simply available and less costly and more amounts exist in the earth.
The primary objective for deploying renewable energy in India is to advance economic development, improve energy security, improve access to energy, and mitigate climate change. Sustainable development is possible by use of sustainable energy and by ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for citizens. Strong government support and the increasingly opportune economic situation have pushed India to be one of the top leaders in the world’s most attractive renewable energy markets.
As the world population increases therefore the energy consumptions are also increases day by day so that we need to move alternative source of energy. Indian renewable energy sector is the fourth most attractive renewable energy market in the world.
Keeping in mind the sustainable development goals, India’s power generation mix is rapidly shifting towards a more significant share of renewable energy. Today, India is the world’s third largest producer of renewable energy, with 40% of its installed electricity capacity coming from non-fossil fuel sources.
Globally offshore wind is about two decades old history with the first offshore wind turbine in Denmark in 1991 which has been decommissioned in 2017. As of now, offshore wind energy projects of more than 57 GW are installed in 18 different countries, of which leading countries are UK, China, Germany, Denmark and The Netherlands.
India stands 4th globally in Renewable Energy Installed Capacity (including Large Hydro), 4th in Wind Power capacity & 5th in Solar Power capacity (as per REN21 Renewables 2024 Global Status Report).The country has set an enhanced target at the COP26 of 500 GW of non-fossil fuel-based energy by 2030. This has been a key pledge under the Panchamrit. This is the world’s largest expansion plan in renewable energy.
India’s installed non-fossil fuel capacity has increased 396% in the last 8.5 years and stands at more than 201.75 GW (including large Hydro and nuclear), about 45.3% of the country’s total capacity (as of May 2024). India saw the highest year-on-year growth in renewable energy additions of 9.83% in 2022. The installed solar energy capacity has increased by 30 times in the last 9 years and stands at 84.27 GW as of May 2024. India’s solar energy potential is estimated to be 748 GWp as estimated by National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE). The installed Renewable energy capacity (including large hydro) has increased by around 128% since 2014.
India’s energy demand is expected to increase more than that of any other country in the coming decades due to its sheer size and enormous potential for growth and development. Therefore, most of this new energy demand must be met by low-carbon, renewable sources.
With the increased support of the government and improved economics, the sector has become attractive from an investor’s perspective. As India looks to meet its energy demand on its own, which is expected to reach 15,820 TWh by 2040, renewable energy is set to play an important role.
India has always been committed to looking for more alternative energy sources for sustainable development. The beginning was made with hydropower, with major hydroelectric power projects appearing on the scene of India’s energy arena. Over the years, many policy and regulatory initiatives have promoted hydropower development and facilitated investments.
Work on wind energy started in India during the 1960s when the National Aeronautical Laboratory (NAL) developed windmills, primarily for supplying irrigation water. Today, India stands 4th largest wind power capacity in the world, blessed with a constant movement of wind, especially in the Southern, Western and North Western regions.
Solar energy-based applications have benefited millions of Indians by meeting their cooking, lighting and other energy needs in an environment-friendly manner. Having achieved large-scale success in solar energy solutions, India has spearheaded the International Solar Alliance (ISA) which is an action-oriented, member-driven, collaborative platform for increased deployment of solar energy technologies.
Biomass has also been an essential source of energy for India. It is renewable, widely available, carbon-neutral and has the potential to provide significant employment in rural areas. Rapidly evolving technology has enabled thermal power plants to have more economical and energy-efficient operations. India has co-fired biomass in thermal plants across the country to reduce its CO2 footprint in thermal power generation. Biomass power/co-generation programme since mid-nineties. Over 800 biomass power and bagasse/non-bagasse cogeneration projects have been installed in the country for feeding power to the grid.
India has progressively decoupled economic growth from greenhouse gas emissions. For example, the Net Zero Emissions target by 2030 by Indian Railways alone will reduce emissions by 60 million tonnes annually. Similarly, India’s massive UJALA LED bulb campaign is reducing emissions by 40 million tonnes annually. To further complement these ongoing efforts, India launched the National Hydrogen Mission in 2013 to make India the world’s largest hydrogen hub. Even though it supports the second largest population in the world, India’s sustained efforts have ensured that its per capita CO2 emissions are much lower than the global average. The US emits 14.7 tonnes per capita, China emits 7.6 tonnes per capita, while India’s CO2 emissions amount to 1.8 tonnes per capita.
India’s experience will be valuable to other developing nations as they translate their climate pledges into actions and undertake energy transitions towards a more sustainable energy future.

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